Education rates, commute times and time at work all growing, census shows

Education rates, commute times and time at work all growing, census shows

Statistics Canada data shows more than half of Canada’s working population has degrees or diplomas

Canadians are putting in more effort in the classroom, additional time on the job and extra teeth-gnashing minutes on the road getting to and from work, Statistics Canada says in the latest — and last — batch of numbers from the 2016 census.

The data released Wednesday show more than half of Canada’s core working population — those aged 25 to 64 — have earned degrees or diplomas from a college or university, the highest rate among comparable OECD countries, a group that includes the United States.

When it comes to educational laurels, women appear to be closing the gap with men: they accounted for half of all master’s degrees in 2016, and nearly half of all earned doctorates among younger Canadians aged 25 to 34.

The wage gap, however, persists. In B.C., for instance, a male with an apprenticeship certificate enjoyed a median income of $75,344 – roughly $12,000 more than a female with a university degree.

“Even though women are more highly educated, they don’t earn more. Their workforce participation rate isn’t greater. So education is clearly not the whole story,” said Laura Wright, an assistant professor of sociology at the University of Saskatchewan.

Seniors in the workforce

One-fifth of seniors over 65 remained in the workforce in 2016, twice the rate of 1996, while median income for full-time workers increased 30 per cent over the last decade. At the other end of the age spectrum, the employment rate for Canadians 15 to 24 dropped by almost six percentage points compared with 2006.

And another from the no-kidding file: getting to work isn’t getting any faster. The “journey to work” inched higher across Canada last year, even with more Canadians than ever opting to use public transit for their daily commute.

Wednesday’s release put the cherry on the statistical sundae Statistics Canada has been building since February, illustrating how life has evolved since 2011 for Canada’s 35.15 million people.

There are more people over 65 than under 15 in a historic grey shift; immigrants are driving population and workforce growth; there are more Indigenous Peoples than ever, and on average they’re younger than the rest of Canada; and young Canadians are living at home longer.

So where do we go from here?

The percentage of the population over 65 is expected to grow from 16.9 per cent to 23 per cent by 2031, while the proportion of children under age 15 flatlines and the ranks of the working-age population shrink.

Older Canadians are lingering longer in the workforce, some because they can, others because they must.

Wednesday’s numbers show a 31 per cent spike in the number of health workers since 2006 — a good thing, given the aging baby boomers, said Julien Picault, a senior economics instructor at University of British Columbia.

“It’s not a crucial point, I think, at this stage, but it’s crucial that we start actually adapting.”

Replacing retiring workers will depend on immigrants, who are driving population growth in the face of low fertility rates. The proportion of immigrants in the population could reach 30 per cent by 2036, up from the 21.9 per cent recorded in 2016.

Those coming to Canada are highly educated — they have rates of post-secondary education more than double their Canadian-born counterparts — and already comprise half or nearly half the labour force in major centres like Toronto and Vancouver.

Michael Haan, a sociology professor at Western University in London, Ont., said it’s high time Ottawa put a plan in place to steer new Canadians towards population-starved rural communities.

“You can’t have a national immigration policy that stands on its own, because what is going to happen is that future immigrant flows are likely to follow the pathways of previous immigrant flows,” Haan said.

As always, the census offers only a snapshot in time, and projections come with a caveat: public policy, the economy and changing social norms, among other factors, could always cause a course correction.

Shifting public and political attitudes towards immigration could impact population estimates, said Haan. North American trade talks could change the face of the labour market. And the advent of online retailing could bring seismic change for the 626,775 people working in retail sales last year, the most common occupation recorded by the census.

Governments could boost the value of child benefits to encourage families to get bigger. Fertility rates could go up if more dads take parental leave, relieving moms of some of the burden of balancing work and family, Wright said.

Whatever happens, it all begins and ends — much as the 2016 census did — with the transformative power of Canada’s aging baby boomers.

“Population aging is the crux of the change,” Wright said. “It drives a lot of other changes.”

Key figures from the 2016 census:

This most recent release of data marks the last in a year-long series of statistical snapshots of the Canadian condition, one that also heralded the return of data from the much-maligned long-form census for the first time in a decade.

35,151,728: Canadian population on census day 2016.

5: Percentage increase in the population between 2011 and 2016.

16.9: Proportion of the national population over age 65, a historic high.

41: Average age of the Canadian population.

7,974,370: Canadians whose mother tongue is neither English nor French. See more >

34.7: Percentage of people age 20 to 34 living with their parents, a historic high. See more >

$70,336: Median household income in 2015, the most recent year available. See more >

10.8: Percentage increase in median household income between 2005 and 2015.

4.8 million: Canadians, including children, living below the poverty line in 2015.

1.2 million: Number of children living in low-income households in 2015.

73,000: Number of same-sex couples in Canada. See more >

14.5: Percentage of Canadian seniors over age 65 living in low income in 2015.

97.8: Response rate from the long-form census, the highest Statistics Canada has ever recorded. See more >

22: Percentage of Canadians who are immigrants. See more >

Get local stories you won't find anywhere else right to your inbox.
Sign up here

Just Posted

Linda Annis, Aug. 12, 2020. (Photo: Malin Jordan)
Council sinks Annis’s call for independent auditor general for Surrey

‘Surrey taxpayers deserve the best possible oversight of the tax dollars they send to city hall,’ Surrey councillor argued

White Rock’s Housing Advisory Committee has recommnded a definition of affordable housing to be used in encouraging an increased supply of rental units for low and very low income households. (Contributed photo)
White Rock to establish city-made definition of affordable housing

Housing advisory committee suggests parameters geared to low-income households

Six-month-old Peanut enjoys a neck-brushing from Kindred Community Farm Sanctuary founder Keryn Denroche. (Tracy Holmes photo)
PHOTOS: $1,000,000 quest underway for South Surrey farm-animal refuge

Served with eviction notice, Kindred Community Farm Sanctuary ramps up search for new home

Car found burned in back alley Sunday near 9700-block of Princess Drive in Surrey. (Photo: Shane MacKichan)
IHIT looking for dash-cam footage of burned Surrey car believed related to YVR shooting

The burned vehicle was found near the 9700-block of Princess Drive

Surrey Police Service’s crest was unveiled Tuesday. (SPS image)
Surrey Police Service hires new communications manager from Surrey RCMP

Lisa Eason was municipal manager of Surrey RCMP’s communications and media unit for almost eight years

A bullet hole is seen in the windshield of an RCMP vehicle approximately 4 km from Vancouver International Airport after a one person was killed during a shooting outside the international departures terminal at the airport, in Richmond, B.C., Sunday, May 9, 2021. THE CANADIAN PRESS/Darryl Dyck
Homicide team IDs man in fatal YVR shooting as police grapple with spate of gang violence

Man, 20, charged in separate fatal shooting Burnaby over the weekend

RCMP are searching for Philip Toner, who is a ‘person of interest’ in the investigation of a suspicious death in Kootenay National Park last week. Photo courtesy BC RCMP.
RCMP identify ‘person of interest’ in Kootenay National Park suspicious death

Police are looking for Philip Toner, who was known to a woman found dead near Radium last week

Vancouver Canucks goaltender Thatcher Demko (35) makes a save on Winnipeg Jets’ Nate Thompson (11) during second period NHL action in Winnipeg, Monday, May 10, 2021. THE CANADIAN PRESS/Fred Greenslade
Vancouver Canucks see NHL playoff hopes dashed despite 3-1 win over Winnipeg

Montreal Canadiens earn final North Division post-season spot

Elias Pettersson and the Vancouver Canucks drew a large crowd to the Abbotsford Centre in 2019. Canucks management hopes the crowds return for the planned AHL team this fall, and early returns are positive. (John Morrow/Abbotsford News)
Canucks: ‘Incredible’ early interest for Abbotsford AHL tickets

Team has had a strong response to both e-mail information and priority ticket lists

Cannabis bought in British Columbia (Ashley Wadhwani/Black Press Media)
Is it time to start thinking about greener ways to package cannabis?

Packaging suppliers are still figuring eco-friendly and affordable packaging options that fit the mandates of Cannabis Regulations

The B.C. legislature went from 85 seats to 87 before the 2017 election, causing a reorganization with curved rows and new desks squeezed in at the back. The next electoral boundary review could see another six seats added. (Black Press files)
B.C. election law could add six seats, remove rural protection

North, Kootenays could lose seats as cities gain more

The Independent Investigations Office of B.C. is investigating the shooting of an Indigenous woman in the Ucluelet First Nation community of Hitacu. (Black Press Media file photo)
B.C. First Nation wants ‘massive change’ after its 3rd police shooting in less than a year

Nuu-chah-nulth woman recovering from gunshot wounds in weekend incident near Ucluelet

Nurse Gurinder Rai, left, administers the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine to Maria Yule at a Fraser Health drive-thru vaccination site, in Coquitlam, B.C., on Wednesday, May 5, 2021. The site is open for vaccinations 11 hours per day to those who have pre-booked an appointment. THE CANADIAN PRESS/Darryl Dyck
COVID vaccine bookings to open for adults 40+, or 18+ in hotspots, across B.C.

Only people who have registered will get their alert to book

Most Read